Explain how is TOWS Matrix an improvement over the SWOT Analysis? Please describe the construction …
Explain how is TOWS Matrix an improvement over the SWOT Analysis? Please describe the construction of TOWS Matrix.
Companies that are large enough to be organized into strategic business units face the challenge of allocating resources among those units. In the early 1970's the Boston Consulting Group developed a model for managing a portfolio of different business units or major product lines. The BCG growth-share matrix named after its developer facilitates portfolio analysis of a company having invested in diverse businesses with varying scope of profits and growth. The BCG matrix can be used to determine what priorities should be given in the product portfolio of a business unit. Using the BCG approach, a company classifies its different businesses on a two-dimensional growth share matrix. Two dimensions are market share and market growth rate.
In the matrix:
• The vertical axis represents market growth rate and provides a measure of market attractiveness.
• The horizontal axis represents relative market share and serves as a measure of company’s strength in the market. Thus the BCG matrix depicts quadrants as shown in the following table: Market , Growth Rate , High Stars Question Marks , Low Cash Cows Dogs , High Low , Relative Market Share ,
BCG Matrix :
Different types of business represented by either products or SBUs can be classified for portfolio analyses through BCG matrix.
They have been depicted by meaningful metaphors, namely:
(a) Stars are products or SBUs that are growing rapidly. They also need heavy investment to maintain their position and finance their rapid growth potential. They represent best opportunities for expansion.
(b) Cash Cows are low-growth, high market share businesses or products. They generate cash and have low costs. They are established, successful, and need less investment to maintain their market share. In long run when the growth rate slows down, stars become cash cows.
(c) Question Marks, sometimes called problem children or wildcats, are low market share business in high-growth markets. They require a lot of cash to hold their share. They need heavy investments with low potential to generate cash. Question marks if left unattended are capable of becoming cash traps. Since growth rate is high, increasing it should be relatively easier. It is for business organisations to turn them stars and then to cash cows when the growth rate reduces.
(d) Dogs are low-growth, low-share businesses and products. They may generate enough cash to maintain themselves, but do not have much future. Sometimes they may need cash to survive. Dogs should be minimised by means of divestment or liquidation.
The BCG matrix is useful for classification of products, SBUs, or businesses, and for selecting appropriate strategies for each type as follows.
(a) Build with the aim for long-term growth and strong future.
(b) Hold or preserve the existing market share.
(c) Harvest or maximize short-term cash flows.
(d) Divest, sell or liquidate and ensure better utilization of resources elsewhere. Thus BCG matrix is a powerful tool for strategic planning analysis and choice.
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